The biodiversity of Canada

When you think of Canada, what do you see? Wide open spaces, towering mountains, pristine lakes? All these things are true, but there is so much more to this country than meets the eye. Canada is home to incredible biodiversity; we’ll explore some of it in this blog post. Canada is home to various ecosystems and wildlife, from the lush rainforests of British Columbia to the arctic tundra of the north. Canada is one of the world’s eighteen megadiverse countries. So what exactly does that mean? Keep reading to find out!

Canada’s geography

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometers (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada’s southern border with the United States, stretching some 8,891 kilometers (5,525 mi), is the longest bi-national land border in the world.

The northern portion of Canada is permafrost; tundra covers much of Nunavut, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador. The Canadian Prairies are among the world’s most important agricultural regions. Canada is also home to many natural resources, including forests, minerals, freshwater, and fossil fuels.

Canada’s vast geography includes diverse landscapes such as mountains, prairies, lakes, rivers, forests, and coastal areas. The country is also home to various wildlife, including polar bears, beluga whales, moose, and eagles.

Canada’s climate

Canada generally has a temperate climate, with average annual temperatures ranging from 3°C to 20°C. However, the country’s vast size and variety of geographical features result in a wide range of climatic conditions, from Arctic tundra in the north to subtropical plains in the south.

Precipitation varies widely across the country, with annual totals ranging from less than 300 mm in parts of the Prairies to more than 5,000 mm in some coastal areas.

Canada’s climate is also affected by several large-scale atmospheric patterns, including the jet stream, El Niño/La Niña events, and the Arctic Oscillation. These factors can result in significant variations in temperature and precipitation from one year to the next.

The different types of ecosystems in Canada

Canada has many different types of ecosystems, each with its unique plants and animals. The taiga is a coniferous forest found in the country’s northern parts. This ecosystem is home to many animals, such as bears, wolves, lynxes, and moose. The temperate rainforest is found along the coast of British Columbia. This ecosystem is full of tall trees and lots of rainfall. Animals that live here include salmon, eagles, and tree frogs. The prairies are grasslands found in the central part of the country. These ecosystems are home to many animals, such as bison, coyotes, and deer. Finally, the Arctic tundra is found in the northernmost parts of Canada. This cold and barren landscape is home to polar bears, caribou, and arctic foxes.

Ecozones are huge geographical areas that group together different types of ecosystems. There are 15 terrestrial ecozones in Canada, which include the Arctic tundra, the Boreal forests, and the Prairies. The 5 marine ecozones are found off Canada’s coastlines in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic oceans. There are over 80,000 classified species of Canadian wildlife, with an equal number yet to be formally recognized or discovered. Due to the warmer climate, most of Canada’s wildlife is found in its southern regions. However, there are also many species that live in Canada’s northern regions, where the climate is colder. Although Canada has a low percentage of endemic species compared to other countries, there are currently more than 800 species at risk of being lost due to human activities, invasive species, and environmental issues in the country. About 65 percent of Canada’s resident species are considered “Secure, ” meaning they’re not currently at risk of becoming extinct. Over half of Canada’s landscape is intact and relatively free of human development. This is because most of the country is uninhabited or sparsely populated. Canada’s boreal forest is considered the largest intact forest on the planet.

Covering almost half of Canada’s landmass, this forest is a key global storehouse of carbon, providing critical ecosystem services like climate regulation and water purification. The health of the boreal forest is, therefore, essential to the well-being of both Canada and the planet as a whole. Sadly, the boreal forest is threatened by human activity and climate change. Industrial development, particularly in the oil and gas sector, has led to increased fragmentation and habitat loss in many parts of the forest. Meanwhile, rising temperatures result in more frequent and intense wildfires, further degrading this vital ecosystem. We must take action to protect the boreal forest if we want to ensure a healthy future for our country and our planet. That means working to reduce the industrial impact on the forest while also taking steps to mitigate climate change. We must remember that the boreal forest is integral to our shared natural heritage and deserves our protection.

According to the latest statistics, approximately 12.1 % of the landmass in Canada is protected as conservation areas. 11.4% is designated as a protected area, and 8.9% of its territorial waters are conserved. Canada’s first national park, Banff National Park, was established in 1885 and spanned 6,641 square kilometers (2,564 sq mi). It can be found in mountainous terrain with many glaciers and ice fields, dense coniferous forests, and alpine landscapes. Algonquin Provincial Park, Canada’s oldest provincial park, which was established in 1893, covers an area of 7653.45 km2 (2 95501 sq mi) with over 2 400 lakes and 1 200 rivers and streams. Regarding marine conservation, Canada has the world’s largest freshwater reserve at 10 000 km2 (3 900 sq mi), Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area on 60 km2 (23 sq mi) of islands and the mainland. Our 18 UNESCO Biosphere Reserves cover a combined total area of 235 000 km2 (91 000 sq mi).

The variety of animals in Canada

There are over 200,000 species of animals in Canada. This includes mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Each of these groups contains a wide variety of different species, all of which are exciting to learn about. Mammals are a large group of animals that include well-known creatures like bears and moose, as well as lesser-known ones like the kermode bear and the water vole. Birds are another diverse group, with common species like the Canadian goose and the blue jay and more unique ones like Anna’s Hummingbird and the Atlantic Puffin. Reptiles and amphibians are often considered quite similar but have a few key differences. Reptiles are typically dry-skinned and lay eggs, while amphibians have moist skin and larvae. Some common examples of reptiles found in Canada are snakes and lizards, while frogs and salamanders are two popular amphibians. Finally, many different types of fish can be found in Canadian waters. Salmon is one of the most well-known varieties, but there are also smaller fish like minnows and larger ones like sturgeon. Whether you’re interested in big or small animals, there’s sure to be a species that catches your attention!

Each of these animals has different characteristics that make them unique. For example, the grizzly bear is a large mammal with sharp claws and teeth. The moose is a very large mammal with antlers. The beaver is a small mammal with a flat tail. The bald eagle is a bird with white feathers and a yellow beak. The snowy owl is a bird with white feathers and black eyes. The garter snake is a reptile with stripes running along its body. The snapping turtle is a reptile with a hard shell. The American toad is an amphibian with wart-like bumps on its skin. The salamander is an amphibian that can breathe through its skin. Lastly, the Atlantic salmon is a fish that can swim upstream against strong currents.

The variety of animals in Canada is truly amazing!

The variety of plants in Canada

Canada is home to a wide variety of plants. From the towering cedars of British Columbia to the delicate wildflowers of the Prairies, there is a plant for every climate and ecosystem in Canada. The country is also home to a wide variety of plant-based medicines. Traditional Indigenous peoples have used plants for healing for centuries, and today many Canadians continue to use plants as alternative medicine.

There are an estimated 30,000 species of plants in Canada, about 10% of all plant species worldwide. That means Canada is one of the most biodiverse countries on earth regarding plants!

Canada’s most common plants include maple trees, pines, firs, and spruce. These trees are integral to Canadian forests and provide homes for many animals. Wildflowers like the bluebell and lupine can be found in meadows across the country.

In addition to these common plants, there are also many rare and endangered species in Canada. The Mountain Ash tree is only found in a few pockets of British Columbia, while the Atlantic Whitefish is only found in a handful of lakes in Nova Scotia. Protecting these rare plants is essential to preserving Canada’s biodiversity.

How climate change is affecting Canada’s biodiversity

Climate change is affecting Canada’s biodiversity in several ways. One of the most dramatic impacts is on the Arctic, where warming temperatures are causing sea ice to melt. This reduces the habitat available for polar bears, walruses, and other ice-dependent species and makes it more difficult for them to find food.

Other animals are also being affected by climate change. For example, caribou in the Arctic are struggling to find food as their traditional grazing areas rapidly disappear. Moose and deer in southern Canada are losing their winter coats earlier because of warmer winters, making them more vulnerable to predators and parasites.

Changes in the timing of seasons also impact birds that breed in Canada. Many species arrive earlier in the spring, but some find their breeding grounds have not yet thawed out sufficiently for them to nest successfully. As a result, many birds cannot produce young enough to maintain their populations.

In addition to direct impacts on individual animals, climate change is also causing changes in plant communities across Canada. Warmer temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns are leading to the spread of invasive species and the decline of native plants. These changes can eventually lead to alterations in entire ecosystems, with far-reaching consequences for wildlife.


Canada is home to an incredible diversity of plant and animal life. From the Atlantic coast to the Rocky Mountains, from the Arctic tundra to the temperate rainforests of British Columbia, Canada’s ecosystems are as varied as they are beautiful. This diversity makes Canada such a special place to live and visit – there truly is something for everyone. And it’s not just the big animals that are important; even tiny insects play a vital role in maintaining our ecosystems. So next time you explore Canada, take a moment to appreciate all the different creatures that call this country home.